1. Home
  2. A to Z Index
  3. Editorial Style Guide
  1. Home
  2. Institutional Advancement
  3. Editorial Style Guide

Editorial Style Guide

Policy Author:
Institutional Advancement

Responsible Office-Department:
Marketing & Communications

Effective Date of Policy:
October 1, 2021

Policy Narrative

The Daemen University Editorial Style Guide provides a set of college-wide standards for editorial  style for Daemen’s print and electronic communications. The guide is intended to help communicate clearly and consistently about Daemen to present a cohesive image of the university and to strengthen Daemen’s brand in official written communications. 

Daemen uses the “Associated Press (AP) Stylebook” as its primary style reference with some  variations that are specific to the college and it is supplemented by the “Merriam-Webster  Dictionary.” Based on AP style, the Daemen Editorial Style Guide addresses common style questions and college-specific references. These standards apply to written communications,  communications/public relations efforts, and materials that represent the college, including brochures, advertisements, magazines, and other publications, marketing projects, and the university website. It is not intended for use in academic or scholarly papers. 

Feel free to contact Daniel Robison, director of institutional communication, at  drobison@daemen.edu with any questions related to the style guide.

a.m., p.m. 

Lowercase, with periods. Avoid the redundant 10 a.m. this morning

See times. 

academic degrees 

Lowercase the degree name and major in all references. 

• bachelor’s degree in health promotion, master’s degree in athletic training 

Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier. 

• bachelor-level program 

Use doctorate or doctor but not Ph.D

• He received a doctor of physical therapy degree. 

• She earned a doctorate in child psychology. 

Lowercase doctoral

• doctoral program 

academic programs

Capitalized when referring to a Daemen program, i.e. “Daemen’s Leadership and  Entrepreneurship in the Arts program”; proper names of all program names are listed below:

Accounting BS/MS



Graphic Design


Leadership and Entrepreneurship in the Arts



Visual Arts Education K–12

Athletic Training BS/MS



Environmental Studies 

Biology/Cytotechnology BS/MS 

Business Administration

Human Resource Management 


Operations and Supply Chain Management Social Entrepreneurship

Sport Management 


Adolescence Education 7–12 



Social Studies



Visual Arts Education (K-12)

Adolescence Special Education 7–12  Childhood Education 1–6

Childhood/Special Ed 1–6

Early Childhood/Special Ed B–2


Professional Writing and Rhetoric  French

Adolescence Education 7–12 

Health Promotion

Community Health 

Health and Fitness 

Health Promotion/Public Health BS/MS 


History and Political Science 

Environmental Studies


Data Science

Natural Sciences

Environmental Studies

Forensic Science

Health Science


Paralegal Studies

Physical Therapy BS/DPT

Physician Assistant BS/MS

Political Science


Religious Studies

Social Work


Sustainability (Global & Local) 

Pre-Professional Studies






Graduate programs

Applied Behavior Analysis

Athletic Training 

Business Administration (MBA)

Special Education 1–6 

Leadership & Innovation 


Physician Assistant 

Physical Therapy (DPT)

Public Health (MPH)

Social Work (MSW)

academic titles 

Capitalize and spell out formal titles when they precede a name. Lowercase  elsewhere. • Associate Professor of Art History Jane Smith

• Dr. John Smith, professor of English 

academic year 

2018-19, not 2018-2019



• Daemen College has earned accreditation. 

Capitalize the accrediting organization. 

• Middle States Commission on Higher Education 


Use an acronym only after first using the full name, followed by the acronym in  parentheses. • Commission on Independent Colleges and Universities (CICU) 

If no subsequent reference is used, the acronym is not needed on first reference.


Abbreviate Ave., Blvd., St. only with a numbered address. 

• 4380 Main St. 

Spell out and capitalize when part of a formal street name without a numbered address.  • Main Street 

Always spell out Alley, Drive, Road, and Terrace


Not adviser. 

• academic advisor 


Hyphenate (same for other ethnic groups, such as Asian-American). However, no hyphen is  used in Native American


Always use figures. Hyphenate ages when expressed as adjectives before a noun or as  substitutes for a noun. 

• a 5-year-old boy 

• The boy is 5 years old. 

• The boy, 7, has a sister, 10. 

An age range does not require an apostrophe.

• He is in his 50s. 

Allegany County 


alma mater 


alumna, , alumnae, alumnus, alumni 

• Use alumna (alumnae in the plural) when referring to a woman who has graduated from  Daemen. 

• Use alumnus (alumni in the plural) for references to a man who has graduated from  Daemen. 

• Use alumni when referring to a group of women and men graduates. 

ampersand (&) 

Do not use except in part of a company’s formal name. 

• M&T Bank


Do not use first annual. An event cannot be annual unless it has occurred two or more  times. See numbers. 

annual fund 

Use Daemen Fund when referring to the college’s annual fund campaign. Lowercase in informal  references. 

• The annual fund was a success. 


Do not abbreviate. Capitalize as part of a proper name. 

• American Medical Association 

Lowercase in informal references. 

• She is a member of the association

athletics, athletics teams 


• Daemen Athletics 

Lowercase in informal references and when referring to teams. 

• athletics program 

• women’s basketball team

baccalaureate degree 

Preference is to use bachelor’s degree. 

See academic degrees. 

bachelor’s degree 

See academic degrees and baccalaureate degree. 

board of trustees 

Capitalize formal name. 

• Daemen College Board of Trustees 

Lowercase in informal references. 

• The board of trustees met this week.

Buffalo Niagara region 

Capitalize Buffalo Niagara, lowercase region

• Daemen is located in the Buffalo Niagara region. 

building names 

Capitalize on first reference. 

• Academic and Wellness Center (AWC) 

• Alumni House 

• Business Building 

• Campus Village Apartments 

• Canavan Hall 

• Curtis Hall 

• Duns Scotus Hall 

• Haberman Gacioch Center for Visual and Performing Arts •  Honors House 

• Lumsden Gymnasium 

• Research and Information Commons (RIC) 

• Rosary Hall 

• Schenck Hall 

• Thomas Reynolds Center for Special Education and After-School Programs •  Wick Campus Center 

Lowercase on informal references. 

• the building, the center, the facility

campus, campus-wide 


• Daemen’s campus 

• The campus-wide event will include many activities. 

Cattaraugus County 



Lowercase, spelling out numbers less than 10. 

• the first century, 21st century


Unless used as part of a full mailing address, the following cities can stand alone (without a  state). 

• Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Honolulu,  Houston, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New  Orleans, New York, Oklahoma City, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Phoenix, St. Louis, Salt Lake  City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Washington 

chair (department) 


• Jane Smith, associate professor and chair of accounting 

Chautauqua County 


Class of 

Capitalize the “C” when referring to a particular class with the year. 

• The Class of 1968 celebrated its reunion. 


One word. 

class year 

Use the name followed by the last two digits of the graduation year. Use no comma between  the name and year. 

• Jane Smith ’76 

• Jane Smith, who graduated in 1976


Capitalize the names of Daemen clubs and organizations. 

• Social Work Alliance 

co-chair, co-editor, co-founder 

Use a hyphen. 


Capitalize only if used as part of a proper name. 

• Daemen College 

Lowercase in other references. 

• The college is located in Amherst, N.Y. 

college-level, college-wide

Hyphenate as in college-level learning, college-wide initiative


Use a serial comma before a conjunction in a series of three or more elements and in a simple  series. 

• The professor teaches courses in political science, world history, and American history. 

Include a comma when connecting independent clauses.  

• Julie planned to study in the lounge, but she instead reviewed the material in the library. 

Insert a comma before the concluding conjunction in a series if an integral element of the series  requires a conjunction. 

• I had orange juice, toast, and ham and eggs for breakfast before classes today. 

Commas go inside quotation marks. 

• “Our college is the best in the country,” he said. 


Capitalize only if used as part of a proper name. 

• Commencement Committee 

Lowercase in informal references. 

• The committee will meet next week. 

company, companies

Use Co. or Cos. when a business uses the word at the end of its proper  name. • General Electric Co. 

• Estee Lauder Cos. 

Spell out company if used in the official name of a business or in the name of a theatrical  organization. 

• Uniland Development Company 

• Irish Classical Theatre Company 

Spell out company or companies if it is informally used in a second reference.  • The company has reported an increase in sales


Lowercase in plural combinations. 

• Erie and Niagara counties

Capitalize in singular reference. 

• Erie County 

course titles 

Capitalize and use quotes when referred to in a sentence. 

• She registered for “Introduction to Psychology.” 


One word. 

courtesy titles 

Refer to individuals by their first and last name on first reference. Reserve use of Mr., Mrs.,  Miss, etc. for salutations in letters or in direct quotes. 

• Jane Hill received the award. 

• “Mr. Jones is a very capable teacher,” said John Smith. 

credit hours 

Use figures. 

• 3 credit hours 

cum laude 



dates, months 

Dates should not include th, nd, or rd after the day of the month. 

• The lecture was held on May 5. (not May 5th

Use “th” when referring to an anniversary or century. 

• The college celebrated its 75th anniversary. 

• She studied 19th century history. 

Capitalize months in all uses. When a month is used with a date, abbreviate all but March, April,  May, June, and July. Abbreviate: Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. 

• Oct. 30, April 19 

When listing only a month and year, do not separate the year with a 

comma. • January 2018

For a period spanning more than one year, do not repeat the first two numbers unless it spans  two centuries. 

• 2010-18 

• 1997-2002 

When referring to a period of time, do not repeat the month. 

• March 2 to 8 

When a phrase refers to a month, day, and year, set off the year with a 

comma. • The target date is Aug. 23, 2019. 

Daemen College 

Use Daemen College on first reference. Use Daemen or the college on second reference. 

Daemen Today 

Italicize. Name of Daemen’s alumni magazine. 

Dean’s List 



Use figures and spell out inches, feet, yards, etc., to indicate depth, height, length, and  width. Hyphenate if used as an adjective. 

• He is 5 feet 10 inches tall. 

• The 5-foot-6-inch athlete had a great season.

• The storm left 6 inches of snow. 

distance learning, distance-learning 

Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier. 

• Classes are available through distance learning. 

• distance-learning classroom 

Distinguished Alumni Awards 


• The Distinguished Alumni Awards will be presented next week. 

doctor, Dr. 

Use the title Dr. on first reference for a medical doctor or a faculty member with a doctorate  degree. Do not use both a title and a degree. 

• Dr. Jane Smith (Incorrect: Dr. Jane Smith, Ph.D.)


No hyphen: email 

Use a hyphen with e-book, e-business and e-commerce. 

emerita, emeritus 

Use emerita (emeritae in the plural) when referring to a female, and emeritus (emeriti in the  plural) for similar references to a man who retains an honorary title. Use emeriti when referring  to a group of women and men. 

Erie County 





Spell out examination on first reference. 


One word. 




Founders Bell, Founders Celebration 

Capitalize. Use no apostrophe in Founders

four-year degree, four-year program 

Hyphenate and lowercase. Spell out the number. 

first-year student 

First-year student is preferred. Hyphenate and lowercase. Avoid using freshman or freshmen

full time, full-time 

Hyphenate only when used as a compound modifier. 

• He works full time. 

• She is a full-time student. 


One word. 

• fundraising event 

• fundraiser 

Genesee County 


grade point average (GPA) 

GPA is acceptable in all references. 

• She earned a 3.5 GPA. 


Hyphenate with no apostrophe when used as a compound modifier. 

• graduate-level courses 


Use “a” before a consonant sound. 

• a historic event 

• a historic occasion 


One word. Lowercase. 

Honors Program 


honorary degrees 

All references to honorary degrees should specify that the degree is honorary. Do not use Dr.  before the name of an individual whose only doctorate is honorary.


Abbreviate and capitalize as Inc. when used as part of a corporate name. Use a comma before  Inc. 

• Gannett Co., Inc. 



it’s and its 

It’s is a contraction for it is. 

• It’s on the table. 

Its is the possessive pronoun. 

• The company changed its name. 

journal titles 

Capitalize. Do not italicize. 

• Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 

junior, senior 

Abbreviate as Jr. or Sr. Precede with a comma. 

• James Smith, Jr.

liberal arts, liberal studies 


• liberal studies major 

magna cum laude 




• business administration major 

master of public health (MPH), master of social work (MSW)  Lowercase. Not master in

• master of public health 

• master of social work 

May use acronym MPH or MSW on second reference. 

master’s degree 

See academic degrees. 


Use figures and the $ sign without the decimal point and 00 if cents are not  included. • The textbook cost $40. (not $40.00

Use a comma for amounts higher than $999. 

• $1,500 (not $1500

Spell out the word cents and lowercase for amounts less than a dollar.  • 25 cents 


See dates, months.


Italicize. Capitalize the in a newspaper’s name only if that is the publication’s formal  name. • The Buffalo News 

Lowercase the if not part of a newspaper’s name. 

• the West Seneca Bee 

New York State 

Capitalize and spell out New York State on first reference. Use NYS on second reference. New York State Department of Education

Capitalize. Use state education department on second reference. 

Niagara County 



Only use noon. It is redundant to refer to it as 12 noon. 


Use numerals for numbers 10 and higher. Spell out numbers less than 

10. • He has two classes this morning. 

Spell out numbers in the beginning of a sentence or rewrite the sentence so the number is not  at the beginning. 

• Three hundred first-year students entered the college last year. 

Change to: Last year 300 first-year students entered the college. 

Spell out first through ninth when they indicate sequence in time or location. Starting with  10th use figures. 

• 25th anniversary 

• The workshop will be held on the second floor. 

Avoid redundancies such as first annual

Additional punctuation and usage examples: 

• Act 1, Scene 2 

• 5-4 court decision

• the 1990s, the ‘90s (not the 90’s

• $2.45 million, $650,000 

• 6.5 percent 

• 60 degrees 

• a ratio of 2-to-1 

See ages, percentages and credit hours. 


Capitalize on first reference and cite the formal name after Office. 

• Office of Academic Affairs (not Academic Affairs Office on first reference) Lowercase on second and informal references. 

• The office oversees academic matters. 

• The academic affairs office is located in Duns Scotus Hall. 

on campus, on-campus 

Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier 

• The lecture was held on campus. 

• He’s enrolled in the on-campus program


One word. No hyphen. 

part time, part-time 

Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier. 

• She’s attending college part time. 

• He is a part-time student. 


Do not use % except in charts and graphs. Always use figures, even if the numbers are less than  10. 

• 18 percent 

For amounts less than 1 percent, precede the decimal with a zero.

• fewer than 0.8 percent 

phone numbers 

Use figures with hyphens, without parentheses. 

• 716-839-3600 

professor and other academic titles 

Do not abbreviate. Lowercase when the title does not precede the name.  • Dr. Jane Smith, associate professor of business administration 


Use program(s) when referring to general degree program(s) or program  information. • Daemen is offering a new degree program. 

• The program offers hands-on training. 

Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier. 

• bachelor’s-degree program 


Periods and commas are always placed inside closed quotation marks.  • “We are pleased to welcome students back to campus,” said Jane Smith. 

Running quotations: If a full paragraph of quoted material is followed by a paragraph that  continues the quotation, do not put close-quote marks at the end of the first paragraph.  However, put open-quote marks at the start of the second paragraph. 

• She said, “The number of new students has increased, but we would like see the numbers  increase even more next semester. 

“To address this, more efforts are in place to retain our current students.” Quotes  within quotes: Alternate between double quotation marks and single marks. 

• “The college president wrote in his letter that ‘we are proud of our tradition of academic  excellence.’ This has been key to our long-term success,” she said. 

Use three quotation marks together if two quoted elements end at the same time. • He  said, “The president wrote in her letter that ‘the program is a cut above other similar


Avoid unnecessary fragments: Do not use quotation marks to report a few ordinary words that  a speaker or writer has used. 

• Wrong: The professor said he would “reschedule the test” if the college was closed because  of bad weather. 

• Right: The professor said he would reschedule the test if the college was closed because of  bad weather. 


Acronym for resident assistant. No periods. Plural use: RAs or resident assistants. residence hall 

Lowercase. Do not use dormitory or dorm. 

room numbers 

Use figures and capitalize Room when used with a figure. 

• Research and Information Commons Room 121 


Abbreviate as St. in names of saints, cities, and other places. 

• St. Francis 

• St. Joseph Hospital 

• St. Paul, Minn. 


Lowercase unless if it is part of a formal name of a scholarship. 

• The first scholarship was awarded. 

• Jane Smith received a Trustee Scholarship. 


Lowercase winter, spring, summer, and fall, unless part of a formal name.  • spring semester

• spring break 

• spring 2019 (not spring of 2019

• Summer Olympics 



• fall semester 

• spring semester 

Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity 

Capitalize and spell out on first reference. Use Sisters of St. Francis on second reference. 

sports teams 


• The Daemen College men’s basketball team won last night’s game. 

spring break


state names 

Spell out when the state name stands alone. 

• Pennsylvania 

Use state abbreviations (not postal abbreviations) if used with a city, town, or village name.  • Amherst, N.Y. 

State abbreviations for when used in prose/text: 

• Ala. 

• Ariz. 

• Ark. 

• Calif. 

• Colo. 

• Conn. 

• Del. 

• Fla. 

• Ga. 

• Ill. 

• Ind. 

• Kan. 

• Ky.

• La. 

• Md. 

• Mass. 

• Mich. 

• Minn. 

• Miss. 

• Mo. 

• Mont. 

• N.C. 

• N.D. 

• Neb. 

• Nev. 

• N.H. 

• N.J. 

• N.M. 

• N.Y. 

• Okla. 

• Ore. 

• Pa.

• R.I. 

• S.C. 

• S.D. 

• Tenn. 

• Va. 

• Vt. 

• Wash. 

• W. Va. 

• Wis. 

• Wyo. 

States never abbreviated within text: Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Mai ne, Ohio, Texas, and  Utah. 

Use postal abbreviations only when a complete address is used. 

• 590 N. Mill St., Aspen, CO 81611 

See addresses and New York State. 



• Daemen students



study abroad (adv.), study-abroad (adj.) 

• He will study abroad. 

• She is participating in a study-abroad program. 

Student Association (SA) 

Use Student Association (SA) on first reference. SA on second reference. 

summa cum laude 



After a name: Lowercase after an individual’s name and set off by 

commas. • Jane Smith, assistant professor of psychology, presented a  lecture

Before a name: The only time an individual’s title is capitalized is when it precedes his or her  name. 

• Director of Career Services John Smith 

titles of books, movies, plays, TV shows, radio shows, and poems 

Use quotation marks. 

• “Star Wars” 

• “Law and Order” 

titles of magazines 


Daemen Today 


Use figures except for noon and midnight. Do not use 12 in front of noon. 

Insert periods in a.m. and p.m. and use without 0s. 

• 8 a.m., 11 p.m

Use a colon to separate hours from minutes.

• 3:30 p.m. 

Avoid such redundancies as 10 a.m. this morning. 

Trustee Scholars 


United States 

Spell out United States on first reference. Use U.S. on second reference. 


Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier. 

• upper-level courses 



One word. Lowercase

• Daemen’s website address is www.daemen.edu

website address 

No need to include http:// in a website address. Use a period at the end of a sentence that ends  with a web address. 

• For more information, visit www.daemen.edu. 

Western New York 

Spell out Western New York on first reference. Use WNY on second reference. 


Name of Daemen’s sports teams. 


Lowercase and hyphenate. 

Wyoming County 



Use figures. 

• 2018 

Use an s without an apostrophe to indicate spans of decades.  • 1990s  

Other Commonly Used Words/Phrases and Troublesome  Words

a, an 

Use the article a before consonant sounds. 

• a historic event 

• a united stand (sounds like you)

Use the article an before vowel sounds. 

• an energy crisis, an honorable mention (h is silent) 

accept, except 

Accept means to receive. Except means to exclude.  accommodate 



affect, effect 

Affect is a verb, means to influence. 

• The game will affect the standings. 

Effect, as a verb, means to cause. 

• The change will have a negative effect on the local workforce. 


Not afterwards.

all right 

Never alright

B, C 


Not backwards

benefit, benefited, benefiting 

biannual, biennial 

Biannual means twice a year and is a synonym for semiannual. 

Biennial means every two years. 

bimonthly, biweekly 

co-author, co-authored

cut back (v.), cutback (n. and adj.) 

• He cut back spending. 

• The budget cutback helped the college remain strong. 

D, E 


daylong, daytime 


each other, one another 

Two people look at each other. More than two look at one another. Either phrase may be used  when the number is indefinite. 

• We help each other. 

• We help one another. 


See affect, effect.

F, G 

farther, further 

Farther refers to physical distance. 

• He walked farther into the woods. 

Further refers to an extension of time or degree. 

• She will look further into this. 


Lowercase, except when starting a sentence. 

fewer, less 

Use fewer for individual items, less for bulk or quantity. 

• Fewer than 10 applicants called. (individuals

• I have less than $10 in my wallet. (amount

• I had fewer than five $1 bills in my pocket. (individual items)




Capitalize Greater when used to define a community and its surrounding  region. • Greater Buffalo 

H, I 

health care (n.), health-care (adj.) 

• The program will focus on understanding health care and its impact on consumers. •  health-care costs 


holidays and holy days 

Capitalize Christmas, New Year’s Eve, Hanukkah, etc. 

irregardless, regardless 

Regardless is correct. Do not use irregardless.

J, K 


Not judgement. 



L, M 





N, O 




on-site, off-site 


P, Q 


policy-maker (n.), policy-making (n., adj.)

premier, premiere 

Premier means first in position, rank, or importance. It is also a title for a government official. 

Premiere means a first performance. 

• The play will premiere on Friday. 

principal, principle 

Principal is a noun and adjective meaning someone or something in first rank, authority,  importance or degree. 

• She is the school principal. 

Principle is a noun that means rule, truth, or law. 

• The company uses basic management principles. 



R, S 



Use all cap. No periods. 

small business, small-business owner 


study abroad 


T, U 


Use theater. Use theatre only if part of a proper 

name. • Theatre of Youth 

total, totaled, totaling 


Not towards. 

travel, traveled, traveling 


Not upwards. 

V, W 


Abbreviate as vs. in all uses. 




workforce, workforce 

training worldwide 


X, Y, Z 


year-end (adj.), yearlong 

zero, zeros, zero-based budgeting

Updated on April 3, 2023

Related Articles